It is known that Isparta, which is one of the important settlements of Pisidia region with its close surroundings, reached prehistoric times. Settlement date of the region begins with the Paleolithic (Eskitaş) Period. In 2000 BC, Pisidia Region was the settlement area of the Luwian and Arzava communities. After the Hittites emerged as a political power, they were interested in the region, but they could not establish a definite sovereignty over Arzava country in the face of centuries of conflict. In the 1200s BC, the communities called "Aegean Migration Tribes" came from the Balkans and ended the political presence of the Arzava Country Confederation, as well as completely changing the political structure of Anatolia. The most important of these communities, Phrygians, gradually lost their power after the 8th century BC and established the Lydian State sovereignty in these lands in 690 BC. Later, although the Kimmer-Sapardais left the Lydians in a difficult situation with constant raids, they could not create a long-term established power in Isparta region. The region came under the rule of the Persians in 546 BC and remained under their sovereignty until 334 BC.
After this date, Alexander the Great dominated the region. In the Hellenistic period, Minassos (Minasın) is seen as a remarkable settlement. Upon the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, Isparta was ruled by the Kingdom of Bergama, the Seleucids, and finally the Romans in 190 BC. Roman rule lasted until 395 AD. Byzantine domination began in 395, and continued until 1204, when the Seljuks took control precisely in Western Anatolia. The important settlement centers of Isparta under Roman rule are Bayat (Selvecia Sidera), Uluborlu (Apollonia), Yalvaç (Antiokheia), Sütçüler (Sağrak-Adada), Şarkikaraağaç (Neopolis) and Gelendost (Debenae). After the Roman Empire split with the two in 395 BC, Isparta, which was connected to the Byzantine Empire, VII. According to the administrative installments made in IX and IX.yy., it became a state center and became a religious center.
Isparta and its surroundings played an active role in the wars between the Islamic States and the Byzantines in the Middle Ages. In 774, during the Abbasid period, a strong Arab army managed to take Isparta, but after a while the Byzantine troops took the city back. The raids of Islamic states to Anatolia lasted until the 10th century. The name of the city, which was under Abbasid rule for a short time in the beginning of the 8th century, is mentioned in the Arab sources as Sabart.
Seljuk historian, İbn Bibi, Anatolian Seljuk Sultan III of Isparta fortress and province. It is written in the time of Kılıç Arslan, that it was conquered by the Seljuks in 1204. The Ulu Mosque, which is the oldest Seljuk artifact from the Seljuks in the center of Isparta, dates back to 1299. Ibn Bibi describes this place as a province famous for its air and water. Isparta region came under the sovereignty of Hamitoğulları in 1300. Famous traveler Ibn Batuta, who came to Isparta during the period of Hamitoğulları Principality, defines the city as a decent town with rich bazaars, countless rivers, vineyards and gardens. He states that his fortress is on a high mountain. Isparta, which came under the rule of İlhanlı for a short period of time during the Hamitogullan period, was again under the domination of Hamitoğulları. Hamitoğlu Kemaleddin Hüseyin Bey gave Isparta to Eğirdir, Karaağaç, Beyşehir, Seydişehir and Yalvaç for 80 thousand gold coins with an agreement signed in 1374. With the death of Kemaleddin Hüseyin Bey in 1390, Isparta and its surroundings definitely joined the Ottoman lands. Joining the Ottoman lands, Isparta joined the central government as a sanjak of the Anatolian Province, the center of which was Kütahya. The management of this new sanjak was given to Kutlu Bey. Kutlu Bey repaired the Great Mosque in 1417 and this mosque has survived to this day. Hamitili, who changed hands between the Ottomans and Karamanoğulları from time to time, II. He definitely joined the Ottomans during the Murad period. Winedar İlyas Bey was appointed as the sanjak principality. After Hamitili was definitely Ottoman property, Isparta became the center of the sanjak and this administrative status was carried out together with Eğirdir.
The centralization of Isparta's Hamitili Sandjak started as of the time of Suleiman the Magnificent. Records kept during this period explain the social and economic situation of Isparta. In the records of 1522, Isparta's, Çeribaşı, Debbağlar, İskender, Mosque, Needle, Farsaklar, Gebran (Hristiyan Mahallesi), Masjid-i Suyuga Bey, Masjid-i Faslullah, Masjid-i Stile, Masjid-i Karaağaç, Masjid-i It is seen that it has 17 districts called Hocaoğlu, Dere, Yenice and Doğancı. Weaving, viticulture and dyeing were highly developed. In addition to the grooming of administrative and military officers, there were Sultan's Crosses in the city. In the year of 1568, Hocaoğlu Neighborhood was presumably included in another neighborhood, and the number of neighborhoods rose to 23 with the newly established İlisucu, Hacı Elfî, Evren, Yayla, Leblebici (Keçeci), Mescid-i Hacı İvaz and Mescid-i Tevesoğlu. It is also seen that the Christian Neighborhood is known as Zimmiyan.
Isparta has witnessed significant zoning activities during the period of hardworking sancak gentlemen. It was built from the mosque and the bedouin, which were considered among the works of Mimar Sinan during the time of Firdevs Bey. Firdevs Bey Mosque or Mimar Sinan Mosque served between the mosque and the bedesten as a mosque foundation. As it is understood from these official state sources, Hamidiye Sanjak's XVI. Since the end of the century, his public order began to deteriorate and he had to deal with Suhte Rebellions for a long time. In this regard, the articles written from the banner to the center and from the court to the banner illuminate the events and provide information about the measures taken. The deterioration of the land administration has paralyzed the economic life of the Ottoman Empire and the Anatolian people suffered great damage from this. This situation also disrupted the army order. This disorder is clearly seen in Isparta. As understood from the order dated 1571, none of the infantry called for service has come to their posts, some have disappeared, some have escaped and the pedestrians of the sancak have fallen to 200 people.
The state had to make various decisions to solve this public order problem, and those who violated the public order were ordered to be put in the shovel, but such actions showed a parallel development to the state's deterioration. It is really late this century and XVII. In the "Celali Uprisings" and the "Great Escapism Period" that followed these uprisings, Isparta suffered great damage and the Isparta-Akşehir circle started to decline economically at the end of these uprisings. The task of Kuyucu Murad Pasha, who was assigned to prevent these riots, to restore order and to suppress the Celali uprisings, restored Isparta after a short time. In addition to the previous riots in the city, disasters such as frequent earthquakes and floods caused various damages. Visiting Isparta in 1706, Frenchman Paul Lucas described the city as a city rich in wool, leather and opium trade, and states that he suffered from earthquake and floods. The great flood that occurred with the overflow of Gölcük Crater Lake in 1780 completely destroyed the Tekke and Yaylazade districts.
Towards the end of the 18th century, Isparta gained new and important facilities with the efforts of Hamid Pasha. Isparta sanjak is seen in a quite calm and stable line during the 19th century. In the census conducted by Sait Efendi from the Letter Letter, in the first half of the century, it is seen that the total male population of Isparta in the central accident was 6,310. Isparta is the center of Hamid Sanjak of Konya Province, which was established with the regulation in 1846. Its name at the time was Hamidabad. This status continued in the regulation in 1854. The Administrative School in Isparta was built for the first time as Rüştiye in 1860 in the place where the current army house is located as wooden and tile. According to the 1867 Provincial Regulation, the Isparta Sanjak, which remained in Konya Province, has a total of 6 accidents. These accidents are Isparta Central Accident, Uluborlu, Havza-ı Karaağaç, Gölhisar-Kemire-Tefenni (together an accident), Barla-Pavlu-Ağros-Eğir (together an accident). At that time, Hoyran and Yalvac were connected to the central flag of Konya Province as an accident.
In the administrative structuring in 1877, it is seen that Burdur was separated as a separate sanjak, and Hamit Sanjak consisted of a total of 5 accidents: Hamit Central Accident, Egirdir, Uluborlu, Karaağaç and Yalvac. It is seen that the administrative structure in 1877 is the same in the state yearbooks in 1892 and 1903. In the 1869 Konya Province Yearbook, it is registered that there are 11,560 inhabitants and 41 neighborhoods along with the Kızıkaralı Tribe in the Isparta Central Crash. According to the 1877 Konya Provincial Yearbook, it is stated that a total of 13,152 people live in Isparta Central accident and 12 villages connected. Again, in the 1877 Konya Province Yearbook, it is registered that there are 22 mosques, 18 masjids, 1 mevlevihane, 23 madrasahs, 3 libraries, 3 Greek Orthodox churches, 1 Armenian church, 6 inns, 5 baths, 542 shops, 5 bakeries, 1 tannery in the central district of Isparta.
According to the 1882 Konya Province Yearbook, the following information about the population of Isparta Central accident is available. There are 14,151 women, 13,905 men, a total of 28,156 Muslims, 2,163 women, 2,239 men, a total of 4,402 Greek Orthodox, 205 women, 346 men, a total of 551 Armenian Gregorian religious distribution, and a total of 33,109 people live. In a determination made in 1885, it is stated that 48,704 people, 4,3561 Muslims, 4,524 Greek Orthodox and 619 Armenian Gregorians, lived in the central district of Isparta.
Isparta is one of the few cities affected by occupations and conflicts during the Battle and National Struggle Period between 1919-1923. Isparta is the center of Hamidabad Sanjak of Konya Province during the days of Mondros Armistice signed after the First World War. The population of the sanjak, which was around 45,000 in 1914, fell below 40,000 because the local Greeks migrated to Greece after the First World War. Apart from the central accident, the sanjak has four accidents. These; Eğirdir, Şarkikaraağaç, Uluborlu and Yalvaç. Its main economic activity is rose oil production, carpet production and poppy production. The export of Isparta is also based on these products.
In the days when the pre-negotiations on sharing between the Dispute States ended and the first Greek invasion in the Aegean began, almost all property administrators of the Isparta region, except the Second Army Inspector Mersinli Cemal Pasha, had a close relationship with the Government of Damat Ferit Pasha. They did not show a remarkable response to the developing occupations, due to the politics of submission to the Entente States. Some of the notables had met with the Italian representative Marki Granti in Antalya and called the Italians to Isparta. In contrast, the vast majority of notables and local rulers reacted to the bargaining of Anatolian lands. They took an attitude in favor of welcoming the occupations that started from place to place with resistance. As a matter of fact, Şehzade Abdurrahman Efendi, who came to Isparta in mid-May 1919 to invite the public to act in moderation, was welcomed quite cold in the town.
As soon as the occupation of the Greeks in İzmir and the Italians in Antalya began, those who came from the notables of Isparta came together immediately and started to search for ways of resistance. Talapaşazade Hafız İbrahim Efendi and Mufti Hüseyin Hüsnü Efendi were the leaders of the local resistance organization in Isparta. After learning that the Italians were acting on Burdur, Hafiz İbrahim Efendi made a telegram to Istanbul through the Second Army Inspector and asked the government for urgent information regarding the Italian operation. It is stated in the telegram of İbrahim Efendi that the people of Isparta region will not bow to the occupation in any way and will resist violently. Meanwhile, under the leadership of Hafız İbrahim Efendi and the Provincial Officers Association, he established a resistance organization called "Demiralay" and called on all Isparta youth to take part in this organization. When the Italian troops invaded Burdur on June 28, 1919 and reached Isparta, the Demiralay organization was developing rapidly. Indeed, the protest demonstrations of this organization played an important role in breaking the Italian occupation and having to withdraw within a short period of a week. When reactions were seen in Uluborlu and Eğirdir as well as Isparta, the Italian Occupation Command concentrated its operations mostly in coastal cities.
Ali Fuat Cebesoy, Commander of the First Battle of the National Struggle, remembers the important role of the Isparta resistance organization in that period in the Kuva-y Milliye: It was to protect the Isparla-Afyonkarahisar-Eskişehir line, there were British people in Eskişehir. , the two warriors with their heads wrapped up, organized the national forces with the attitude and far-sightedness of an experienced commander, and took the command in their own hands with a decision that would be misleading at the first moment.
Hafız İbrahim Efendi, one of these two people who Ali Fuat Cebesoy is so praised for, was at the forefront in the organization of Kuva-yı Milliye in Isparta and was appointed as the Head of the Isparta Branch of the Anatolian and Rumeli Defense Society established after the Sivas Congress. was introduced. Demiralay, which was formed by Isparta volunteers, showed significant benefits at the Denizli-Sarayköy Front, which was built against the Greeks. The fact that Hafız İbrahim Efendi, who was a deputy of Isparta in the Grand National Assembly, received the surname "Demiralay" was also due to these efforts.
The Italians, who could not be occupied directly due to the reaction against the occupation forces in Isparta, came to Isparta with a few officers and cavalry and requested to have a small platoon for the purpose of public order. However, this proposal of the Italians is met with a reaction by the Spartans. In mid-August 1919, a protest rally is held, attended by eight thousand people. Finally, Italian officers and soldiers have to leave Isparta and return to Antalya. In October 1919, Hafız İbrahim Bey was informed by the Burdur Telegraph Manager that Antalya Occupation Commander General Emilton was accompanied by the car, although he was 168 horsemen, that he would move to Isparta by the Çerçin road, and that 2 battalion soldiers were ready to order.
Hafiz İbrahim Demiralay explains this incident as follows: "The issue was important and kind. We were able to fulfill the duty with Commander of the Gendarmerie Division Commander Mustafa, 68. Alay S. Battalion Commander Yüzüz Hüsnü Beyler. The cavalry turned around slowly, and when he approached us, he obeyed the stop order of our forces and got out of his car. I made a verbal warning by discussing: No matter how you manage with the government language, our request is to turn this man back to where he came after an hour without even giving a glass of water. If this is not done, we will kill Talat Bey with official language, one hour of difficulty. Provided by planting it was able to return to come again. We left free by submitting their weapons outside the boundaries of Isparta."
While speaking with the Italian Commander, Mutasarrıf Talat Bey said that in another room of the Government building, he said: Someone who has fallen in favor of Italians' public policy:
- Hafiz! What harm do we have from the Italians? They will bring many favors to the country, hospital they will open, they will raise their country by making a lot of money establishments, you are going too far, otherwise Isparta asked only from you?
Hafiz Ibrahim, as an interpreter to the majority who thinks like himself, answers with words:
- Yes, I am asked. I passed away, he conquered this country with a wooden knife, and I will protect it with my sword. It would be good for you to get up and go.
With these words, Isparta has revealed that it is against the occupation and that it can respond to the weapon if necessary. While Italians understood the hard reactions of the Spartans against them, they continued to send political representatives with various excuses. However, they even took prior consent in these visits. Italians whose future is reported to buy carpets in Isparta on 28.10.1919 are allowed. An Italian officer comes to Isparta with other officers and a Jewish translator. They leave their cars to Kerimpaşa Inn and go to the Şark Halı Company. The arrival of more than the permitted number attracts the attention of the Isparta Defense Law Society. A group of 15 armed people are patrolled under the command of retired Officer Yılmaz İbrahim. On the same day, Italians in the Şark Halı Company are taken by armed patrols and brought to Hafız İbrahim. Hafız İbrahim asks the loud delegation why they came, loudly and without permission. Italians state that they want to make commercial initiatives to develop Isparta. However, they return to Burdur by obtaining a security certificate from Hafız İbrahim's determined attitude. The way of the Italians who go to Burdur through Çünür-Fandas is often interrupted by national forces, giving the impression that Isparta is organized and protected by many military forces. Isparta Sanjak could not be occupied in the face of the firm and determined attitude of Ispartans.
In summary, between the years of 1919-1923, during the National Struggle, Isparta became one of the provinces that was least affected by the foreign occupations in question in the region. Isparta, which was left to the population of Italians from dispute states, showed great resistance and did not submit to the occupation of Italians. Isparta, which is located in an important geographical location connecting Central Anatolia, Aegean and Mediterranean Regions, has provided important developments in various aspects during the Republican period.
It is necessary to examine the developments of Isparta and its districts in two phases during the Republican period. The first is until 1960. In this period, studies that have features in terms of social, economic and public works were started. Republic of Isparta in Turkey's second development phase will begin after 1960. Since this date, it is seen that the development process has increased and especially industrialization and urbanization movements have gained importance.
While Isparta gained major public works until the 1960s during the Republican period, it was significantly affected economically especially with the development of rose farming and carpet weaving. The positive effect of Isparta reaching the railway in 1936 had a great impact on the region. In the period from 1960 until today, many urban, educational, health and industrial facilities that have had a rapid impact on modern urbanization in Isparta have been established and continue to be established in the city as well as in other settlements in the city.
SOURCE OF THE NAME OF ISPARTA
It is not known exactly why the city is called Isparta, where the name Isparta comes from. There are many researches and opinions on this subject. It is stated that in Isparta History of Böcüzade Süleyman Sami, in Meydan Larousse, in Kaamus'ul-Alam, the name of Isparta was used instead of Baris, one of the cities of Pisidia. It is believed that the name Baris has a connection with the word "Vari", which means "Water" in Sanskrit. It is stated that the name "Isparta" took the shape of Isparita, and it is called "Isparta" as a galat.
Expressing another opinion Turhan Hikmet Dağlıoğlu and Prof. Unger explains that the name Isparta comes from the word "Baride", that the word is Hittite, perhaps a Lydian word, and after the Greek immigrants came to Anatolia, they added "Eis" in the name of Barida and said "Isbarida". To the opinion that the name Isparta came from "Eis Baride" and then this word was used as "Isparta" by the Turks. Osman Turan and Prof. They participate in Ramsey.
In Arab sources, the name Isparta is referred to as Sabarta (in Ibni Batuta). This name VIII BC. It is also stated that the Sabardai tribes exiled to the south by the Scythians in the north of the Black Sea in the 16th century were settled as a result of their settlement in the region.
Another view is that the name of Isparta which is the most mentioned in history is Baris. This name was given by the Hittites and means "Abundance". When the Romans dominated the Pisidia region, they adapted the name of Baris to their own language and said "Sbarita". After the city was conquered by the Turks, it became a city of Isparta and was mentioned under this name.
It is located in the Lake District in the north of the Mediterranean Region in the Isparta Province. The altitude of the city, which has an area of 8.933 km2, is an average of 1050 meters. 68.4% of the province consists of mountains, 16.8% plains and 14.8% plateaus. There are quite high mountains in Isparta, which are the extension of the Western Taurus Mountains and reach 3000 meters in height. Dedegöl, Barla, Davraz and Akdağ are the most important mountains of the province; Egirdir Lake, Beyşehir Lake, Kovada Lake and Gölcük Crater Lake are the most important known lakes.
Isparta, which has many lakes, ponds, mountains, plateaus, canyons, caves, forests, streams, and national and natural parks on its geography, offers all kinds of alternative tourism opportunities to tourists and nature lovers coming with these riches.
The effects of the Mediterranean climate are observed in Sütçüler District, Eğirdir District, partly Aksu District and Central District, which constitute the southern part of Isparta lands. While winters are rainy and milder in these parts, summers are hot and humid. The same geography also shows the geographical features of the Mediterranean Region. One of the highest peaks of the Western Taurus Mountains is Dedegöl Mountain (2998 m), which is within the borders of Aksu and Yenişarbademli Districts. Barla Mountain (Gelincik Hill-2798 m) and Davraz Mountain (2635 m), declared as a center for winter sports and tourism, are the other high mountains of the province.
As a result of rivers and tectonic movements across the Sütçüler District, valleys and canyons have formed among the large mountain ranges. In many of these canyons, small streams and streams compete with each other towards the Mediterranean. Again, this section draws attention with its dense forests with various tree species. Within the borders of Eğirdir District, the Upper Gökdere Pulley Oak Forest appears as an area where endemic species coexist.
Şarkikaraağaç, Gelendost, located in the east of the province; Yalvaç in the north, Senirkent; Uluborlu, Keçiborlu and Gönen districts located in the west reflect the steppe climate, which is a characteristic feature of Central Anatolia in general. The geographical features of this section can be specified as wide plains, uncommon forests, and sometimes high mountains.